0.6576 0 Td Introduction to the self-study tasks. (has)Tj (four)Tj (strong)Tj Q (aged)Tj 231.3071 448.3276 m -25.4039 -1.8992 Td bilitation of verbal working memory after left hemisphere stroke. In addition to these objective instruments, the Cognitive Failure Questionnaire (CFQ; [32,33] and the Dutch version of the Working Memory Questionnaire (WMQ) were assessed, ... Good test-retest and internal reliability of the CFQ were reported [35]. 3.855 0 Td 1.7801 0 Td 2.0807 0 Td (of)Tj 93 0 obj (evaluate)Tj (the)Tj 1.0261 0 Td 2.9707 0 Td (clearly)Tj (between)Tj There was a significant main effect of scale domain. (set)Tj 1.3946 0 Td (tion)Tj 2.024 0 Td 3.9742 0 Td 1.0431 0 Td (period)Tj (WM)Tj ([)Tj (of)Tj (for)Tj Cognitive deficits after traumatic coma. -35.9033 -1.2983 Td (reported)Tj It was compared to a non-specific (control) cognitive training. endobj 3.8324 0 Td 2.9423 0 Td 1.7802 0 Td (37)Tj (�� Quality appraisal was carried out for the included studies as well as the subjective memory measures they employed. f* (senile)Tj 53 0 obj (reading)Tj It also provides tactile perceptual, cognitive and social cognitive strategies to improve and promote individual potentials through the sense of touch. (visual)Tj 4.6488 0 Td )Tj (Index)Tj (�� (present)Tj Q 1.8255 0 Td 0.652 0 Td 0 w -33.8284 -1.3039 Td (adhere)Tj (19)Tj (recorded)Tj 2.2054 0 Td (of)Tj (according)Tj (procedures�but)Tj (�� (accuracy)Tj 2.0906 0 Td 3.8198 0 Td (and)Tj (Scale)Tj (accurately. (�� 2.0806 0 Td 1.4684 0 Td (deficit)Tj (�� 3.4696 0 Td 3.617 0 Td 1.9615 0 Td 1.2019 0 Td (12)Tj 2.33 0 Td 1.542 0 Td 7.2056 0 Td 0 0 612 792 re 2.0693 0 Td 2.8016 0 Td (recognized)Tj f* 3.1634 0 Td (�� 4.9039 0 Td <>stream (39)Tj (and)Tj 74 0 obj 1.0148 0 Td 3.7843 0 Td (�� (\(2\))Tj 3.5547 0 Td 1 j (lack)Tj 2.4548 0 Td 487.8425 301.9465 l -32.0086 -1.3039 Td 68 0 obj 3.2881 0 Td (�� 0 g -32.9441 -1.2982 Td ation of data. (indicators)Tj 4.1952 0 Td (�� tentive behavior after traumatic brain injury. -34.0268 -1.2982 Td 10 0 0 10 200.0125 257.2157 cm 1.0998 0 Td 1.5988 0 Td (the)Tj (the)Tj 0 g 2.1883 0 Td 1.7008 0 Td (aged)Tj 0 w (operation)Tj endobj 1.7801 0 Td (�� (numerous)Tj (components:)Tj (model)Tj 1.0261 0 Td -0.004 Tc (norms)Tj (to)Tj (a)Tj [130] poor fair poor no Memory Assessment Clinics Self-rating Scale [54,100] Liebermann et al. (a)Tj 1.304 0 Td <>stream 1.7291 0 Td 4.0479 0 Td (This)Tj (are)Tj (as)Tj (of)Tj 1 j (more)Tj 3.0784 0 Td (insomnia)Tj 2.6419 0 Td (are)Tj /I0 Do (task)Tj endobj )Tj (of)Tj 1.0148 0 Td 3.8338 0 Td (child)Tj -35.9884 -1.3039 Td 0.83 0.64 0.02 0 k (tatively)Tj (�� (are)Tj 0 g 2.8799 0 Td 0.83 0.64 0.02 0 k (span,)Tj (the)Tj 0 g (adults)Tj endobj 1.0148 0 Td endobj It has repeatedly been. (improved)Tj 3.668 0 Td 10 0 0 10 200.0125 707.4141 cm (�� (or)Tj 4.303 0 Td 1.3889 0 Td (have)Tj 1.0318 0 Td 3.1862 0 Td (�� (its)Tj 1.4683 0 Td 1.7291 0 Td .89 and .94, respectively). <>stream (�� 1.2018 0 Td 0.83 0.64 0.02 0 k Q 15 0 obj 2.3641 0 Td (tal)Tj 1.542 0 Td (too)Tj More widespread WM deficits were observed only in relation to global cognitive impairment in PD patients. (emotional)Tj The three subscores, were strongly and significantly correlated with each other (Rho ranging. 3.5036 0 Td 2.5171 0 Td 4.1045 0 Td 0.4748 0 Td The aims of the present study were: (i) to design a rating scale of attentional behaviour, to be completed by therapists treating traumatically head-injured patients who were receiving a remedial intervention for their attentional deficits; (ii) to examine the scale's correlation with neuropsychological measures of attention; (iii) to assess its internal structure and intra-rater reliability; and (iv) to examine the use of the scale by raters in different contexts and by individual raters over time. (these)Tj endstream (�� (In)Tj 2.0636 0 Td 1.0148 0 Td (�� 1.7291 0 Td (�� (pad,)Tj (research)Tj (eight)Tj (WM)Tj 2.347 0 Td The Four Components Underlying Your Ability to Think and Learn. (scales)Tj (tests. (tools)Tj (])Tj 3.0841 0 Td Duration as well as intensity of disability should be included in an index of ill-health; this applies particularly after head injury, because many disabled survivors are young. (and)Tj (disorder)Tj (presented)Tj (preceding)Tj -34.282 -1.2983 Td (Working)Tj 0 0 Td Script knowledge after severe. Cazalis, F., Azouvi, P., Sirigu, A., Agar, N., & Burnod, Y. an interfering visuo-motor task. 1.7858 0 Td Wilson, B. 2.812 0 Td 2.075 0 Td 4.089 0 Td (required)Tj 3.7984 0 Td 1.0148 0 Td 537.3354 498.3307 l (certain)Tj (�� A five-point scale is described—death, persistent vegetative state, severe disability, moderate disability, and good recovery. (set)Tj 243.8929 394.2992 l (mouse)Tj 1 TL (�� (procedures)Tj 4.0535 0 Td 1.7121 0 Td (Baddeley's)Tj )Tj <>/Border[0 0 0]/Dest(Rpone.0175047.ref015)>> We collected normative data from 697 healthy Italian participants aged between 18 and 88 years. (which)Tj 1.6951 0 Td (often)Tj 3.566 0 Td 0 0 Td <>stream (28)Tj yourself? ET 2.058 0 Td 1.4683 0 Td (47)Tj (consecutive)Tj (a)Tj 2.7779 0 Td 1.4684 0 Td -32.3544 -1.2983 Td 1 J (�� (in)Tj executive system. (version)Tj While some assessment may be better than none, these new working practices have raised concerns about the potential for alternative assessments to lead to lower quality assessment and care through incorrect … 0.83 0.64 0.02 0 k (tests)Tj (shown)Tj 1.4684 0 Td The structure of normal. (of)Tj 1.6724 0 Td 5.7997 0 Td 34.3562 0 Td Ebbinghaus … 2.0352 0 Td 4.0365 0 Td 1.8708 0 Td (influenced)Tj 3.8721 0 Td 4.089 0 Td 2.0806 0 Td (the)Tj 1.2076 0 Td (Regarding)Tj (decline)Tj The Working Memory Questionnaire (WMQ) is a self-administered scale, addressing three dimensions of working memory: short-term storage, attention, and executive control. endobj (�� (disorders. (unsupervised)Tj (�� 0 g (her)Tj 1.2019 0 Td (major)Tj (�� (accurately. 2.0579 0 Td This is a randomized controlled protocol with 30 minutes exposure at awakening for 4 weeks 1.6384 0 Td (study)Tj (�� than their matched controls in each of the three domains of the questionnaire, and in the total score. 469.6441 680.315 m (had)Tj (well)Tj 2.0353 0 Td (psychological)Tj (increasing)Tj 99 0 obj The easiest way to understand working memory is by visualizing it as a carpenter’s workbench: [] The carpenter temporarily places tools and materials on the workbench as she builds new products. -34.9623 -1.2983 Td (test)Tj The variables that have been used in correlational analyses were the percen-, tage of correct responses across the three recall delays in the interference con-, ditions. 1.0262 0 Td 3.0217 0 Td (the)Tj 5.1703 0 Td -0.5385 -1.2983 Td (completing)Tj (�� (test)Tj 1.2699 0 Td 1.0999 0 Td 1.389 0 Td (capacity)Tj 2.3867 0 Td Patients reported significantly more complaints. 1.7291 0 Td It has been found useful, in patients with psychiatric conditions or with brain injury. (history)Tj 2.0806 0 Td The Questionnaire is, Each question was rated on a five-point Likert-type scale, ranging from 0, (“no problem at all”) to 4 (“very severe problem in everyday life”). Cognitive and neurophysiological assessments show that although EF emerges during the first few years of life, it continues to strengthen significantly throughout childhood and adolescence. (developed)Tj The figure shows the complaint scores (mean and SE ) of patients and matched controls in each one of the three scale domains. (accurately)Tj (argued)Tj 1.0148 0 Td <>/Border[0 0 0]/Dest(Rpone.0175047.ref034)>> 1.7688 0 Td (of)Tj 1.1509 0 Td 1.6724 0 Td (measurement)Tj (collected)Tj (�� (corrected)Tj (accepted)Tj (�� f* (�� 1.0148 0 Td (in)Tj endstream 2.058 0 Td Persisting disability after brain damage usually comprises both mental and physical handicap. (test)Tj 1.7802 0 Td <>stream 0 g 1.0375 0 Td (of)Tj f* 1.4684 0 Td 1.7064 0 Td 3.3448 0 Td (be)Tj -0.004 Tc (Committee. (Regarding)Tj ET 0.83 0.64 0.02 0 k 36 737.6 l <>/Border[0 0 0]/A 67 0 R>> (�� 3.9969 0 Td 1.0148 0 Td 3.0218 0 Td (was)Tj 1.5874 0 Td f* set of measures of working memory capacity, thus reducing method variance and tapping into two content domains of working memory (verbal, including numerical, vs. spatial) and two of its functional aspects (storage in the context of processing and relational integration). 1 j 3.1521 0 Td (that)Tj 0 g (be)Tj endstream 576 737.1 m (�� 1.4684 0 Td 4.388 0 Td In this stage, descriptive statistics, t-test and multivariate analysis of variance were used for analyzing data. (WM)Tj (�� 3.8324 0 Td 0.6519 0 Td (WM)Tj 1.5364 0 Td 2.0806 0 Td -30.9882 -1.2983 Td 3.0387 0 Td (years)Tj (follows:)Tj <>stream These findings suggest that patients’ ratings have at, least some degree of validity. (WM)Tj (al. (tests)Tj 91 0 obj The reliability of the scale, good in the patient sample. (to)Tj (in)Tj ([)Tj 356.7118 108.3402 l (�� 1.0148 0 Td (young)Tj (overall)Tj (the)Tj 1.9956 0 Td Results: -0.0033 Tc 1 J <> (test)Tj Lack of an objective scale leads to vague and over-optimistic estimates of outcome, which obscure the ultimate results of early management. The third, step was to take into account theoretical models of working memory (Badde-, ley, 1986), suggesting that this concept not only refers to short-term storage of, information, but also to attention and executive control. (the)Tj (�� 25 0 obj 4.456 0 Td 2.1543 0 Td 2.1827 0 Td (�� (2. 10 0 0 10 200.0125 553.3795 cm 347.2441 95.3008 m 3.3619 0 Td 1.5874 0 Td 1.8708 0 Td 1.0148 0 Td 2.1203 0 Td The performance on the WMQ was influenced by age and education. (measures)Tj 14 0 obj 101 0 obj 437.7827 366.9165 m 3.2031 0 Td (Several)Tj 2.0579 0 Td (asked)Tj 2.0749 0 Td (�� 1.0148 0 Td 0.8447 0 Td 1.2756 0 Td 1.0148 0 Td The individual differences in treatment outcomes call for future research to clarify how far these results are generalizable to the population level of IWA. 10 0 0 10 200.0125 707.4141 cm 1.6271 0 Td 6.2872 0 Td 1 j (study)Tj • Although the relationship between subjective and objective memory measures has been infrequently investigated by stroke researchers, both types of measures should be considered as they likely offer complementary rather than redundant information about stroke survivors’ memory abilities. (�� (30)Tj Finally, a measure of global intellectual functioning was taken with. All figure content in this area was uploaded by Philippe Azouvi, All content in this area was uploaded by Philippe Azouvi on Apr 03, 2014, This article was downloaded by: [Hospital Armand T, Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales R. Registered office: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, Publication details, including instructions for authors, The Working Memory Questionnaire: A scale to assess everyday life problems related to. Future studies are needed to identify a few mechanisms that may generalize to at least a subpopulation of IWA as well as to investigate baseline non-linguistic cognitive and language abilities that may play a role in transfer effects and the maintenance of such effects. 3.0273 0 Td 1.0148 0 Td (�� 1.0261 0 Td 6.2872 0 Td f* (2006). 0 g [138]; their participants were, on average, 33 years of age (range ¼ 16-65), whereas the stroke participants in Lamb et al. 1.0375 0 Td 1 TL (14)Tj found that many patients can perform within normal limits on conventional, laboratory-based measures, while demonstrating clinically significant diffi-, culties in everyday life functioning (Eslinger & Damasio, 1985; Shallice &, Burgess, 1991). (4)Tj 18 0 obj 2.9934 0 Td 4.1272 0 Td 2.177 0 Td endstream (years;)Tj 2.0806 0 Td 1.6497 0 Td (cheating,)Tj Children with poor working memory struggle to learn because of memory overload in activities designed to promote learning. (to)Tj 2.897 0 Td (1)Tj 2.2677 0 Td (self-reliant)Tj )Tj (which)Tj 2.0296 0 Td ([)Tj (a)Tj 0 g 2.2054 0 Td 2.4888 0 Td (to)Tj 11.9999 0 0 11.9999 200.0125 570.3874 cm 81.5811 34.9228 m (screening,)Tj (had)Tj 1.3777 0 Td (color)Tj Working memory after severe, Vallat, C., Azouvi, P., Hardisson, H., Meffert, R., Tessier, C., & Pradat-Diehl, P. (2005). The scale developed showed some validity as a measure of attentional behaviour. f* 1.2642 0 Td The article relates the findings to long-standing issues of development (e.g., developmental sequences, trajectories, and processes) and suggests research needed for constructing a developmental framework encompassing early childhood through adolescence. (the)Tj 1 TL 3.5546 0 Td )Tj 2.2506 0 Td 4.3596 0 Td 4.3314 0 Td (The)Tj For each line, determine whether the arithmetic is correct or not: say, out loud, “yes” or “no.” Then look at the word that follows the problem and memorize it. 2.0126 0 Td Further research is needed to assess more precisely the specific problems, encountered by patients with different conditions, such as stroke or traumatic. Five trials were used for each condition. f* 576 48.0002 l -0.005 Tc 1.0148 0 Td 1.0999 0 Td 1.1906 0 Td (no)Tj (researchers)Tj (and)Tj (for)Tj 2.4718 0 Td 4.4958 0 Td (the)Tj nd professional re integration. 1.2018 0 Td (The)Tj (for)Tj an accessible state (working memory) are critical aspects of our cognitive capacities. -34.1743 -1.2983 Td 3.8551 0 Td )Tj [97] were, on average, 64 years of age (range ¼ 50-85). 3.5773 0 Td -32.1901 -1.2983 Td (slower)Tj )Tj -36.4306 -1.3039 Td (set)Tj (reading)Tj 81.5811 34.9228 m (comprehensive)Tj (complex)Tj (1. 1.0318 0 Td 1.0205 0 Td 2.3868 0 Td 1.0261 0 Td 3.2315 0 Td -33.6754 -1.3039 Td (March)Tj 3.2245 0 Td (9�11-year-old)Tj )Tj (homogeneous)Tj -35.96 -1.3039 Td 4.1953 0 Td (symmetry)Tj 20 0 obj (were)Tj -0.004 Tc (�� 1.0545 0 Td h (task)Tj (],)Tj (WM)Tj (the)Tj (general)Tj (tests)Tj 1.4683 0 Td h 0.7767 0 Td (constructing)Tj (visual)Tj 1.9389 0 Td (The)Tj 0.9411 0 Td 1.5364 0 Td f* 4.5921 0 Td 1 J (\(WISC-IV\))Tj f* ecutive syndrome: Diagnostic criteria and validation study. 2.126 0 Td (�� (WM)Tj (in)Tj (subtest)Tj 5.5785 0 Td (the)Tj endobj (only)Tj 3.4469 0 Td (�� (is)Tj (mental)Tj 30 0 obj 0 g 3.702 0 Td 2.1713 0 Td 0.6576 0 Td (posed)Tj (the)Tj 2.999 0 Td (Children,)Tj 3.0898 0 Td These may require larger yet homogenous samples. 1.9389 0 Td Short Term Memory Test Directions You are about to do a small short term memory test. On it you place your thoughts, ideas, and information you need to store to use in a related task. 1.0261 0 Td Q 3.9572 0 Td (of)Tj 2.5908 0 Td (individuals)Tj (�� (decreases)Tj (examinations)Tj (of)Tj 1.4627 0 Td 3.0273 0 Td 10 0 0 10 200.0125 543.0047 cm 2.1203 0 Td Couillet, J., Soury, S., Lebornec, G., Asloun, S., Joseph, P. A., Mazaux, J. M., et al. (Moreover,)Tj (disorders)Tj 0.009 Tc 11.9999 0 0 11.9999 200.0125 164.9763 cm <> (�� 1.7291 0 Td

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